Teori migrasi manusia bermula dari Asia Tenggara (benua Sunda yang tenggelam ke Taiwan bukan sebaliknya)
Kepada yang skeptikal, lihat di sini (terjemahan anakbukitgantang)
Kajian terbaru dari University Leeds yang dikeluarkan dalam Molecular Biology and Evolution menunjukkan bahawa dapatan DNA Mitokondria ( bahan genetic) membuktikan bahawa susur galur manusia moden bermula dari Sunda sebuah benua yang tenggelam dan kini menjadi kepulauan-kepulauan kecil di Asia Tenggara. Benua ini dikenali sebagai Sundaland. Migrasi manusia moden dari Asia Tenggara berkait rapat dengan kenaikan paras air laut setelah berakhirnya Zaman Ais. Migrasi ini menyebabkan manusia moden berpindah dari benua Sundaland sehingga ke Taiwan pada tempoh 10,000 tahun yang lalu. Kenaikan paras air laut juga menyebabkan benua yang tenggelam itu hanya dapat diduduki di bahagian yang tinggi dan menyebabkan munculnya kepulauan-kepulaan kecil seperti Sumatera dan Jawa di Indonesia, Semenanjung di Malaysia , pulau Borneo dan juga Filipina hari ini.
Dapatan terkini dari Human Genome Association juga mendapati populasi manusia moden berfokus di selatan Asia kerana ia dapat dikesan melalui persamaan genetic di seluruh Asia Tenggara (bahagian selatan Asia) . Kajian juga mendapati diversity genetic paling besar ialah dari Utara Asia (Cina dan Taiwan) ke Selatan Asia (bahagian Asia Tenggara). Kajian juga mendapati bahawa walaupon populasi bangsa China sangat besar tapi tiada perbedaan genetic yang ketara antara mereka . Namun perbedaan genetic bangsa China dengan penduduk Asia Tenggara sangat besar (kawasan asal Sundaland) -ini bermaksud bahawa pertambahan populasi kaum China berlaku sangat lewat iaitu pada 10,000 tahun kebelakangan setelah berlaku perkembangan dalam pertanian di China!
Dr Oppheimer (pakar genetic) telah membuat konklusi bahawa asal Austronesian ialah di Sundaland. Melalui kajian genetic, diketahui benua Sundaland telah mulai diduduki manusia sekitar 50,000 tahun dulu dan ini menyangkal teori sebelumnya bahawa migrasi manusia moden di Asia Tenggara adalah dari Taiwan! Sebaliknya migrasi manusia berlaku dari Asia Tenggara ke bahagian utara iaitu Taiwan (dan China serta Jepun).
Text asal dalam bahasa Inggeris
A study from Leeds University and published in Molecular Biology and Evolution. Examination of mitochondrial DNA lineages shows that human have been evolving within Islands of Southeast Asia for a longer period than previously believed. Population dispersals occurred at the same time as sea levels rose, which may have resulted in migrations from the Philippine Islands to as far north as Taiwan within the last 10,000 years. The population migrations were most likely to have been driven by climate change — the effects of the drowning of a huge ancient continent Sundaland. This happened during the period 15,000 to 7,000 years ago following the last Ice Age. The rising sea levels in three massive pulses caused flooding and the submergence of the Sunda Continent, creating the Java and South China Seas and the thousands of islands that make up Indonesia and the Philippines today.
The new findings from Human Genome Organisation also shows that Asia was populated primarily through a single migration event from the south.They found genetic similarities between populations throughout Asia and an increase in genetic diversity from northern to southern latitudes. Although the Chinese population is very large, it has less variation than the smaller number of individuals living in Southeast Asia, because the Chinese expansion occurred very recently, following the development of rice agriculture — within only the last 10,000 years.
Oppenheimer locate the origin of the Austronesian in Sundaland and its upper regions. Genetic research reported in 2008 indicates that the islands which are the remnants of Sundaland were likely populated as early as 50,000 years ago, contrary to a previous hypothesis that they were populated as late as 5,000 years ago from Taiwan.
NOTES AND REFERENCES
- ^ a b A study done by HUGO showed that the continent was likely populated primarily through a single migration event from the south.
- ^ The physical geography of Southeast Asia by Avijit Gupta, 2005, ISBN 0-19-924802-8 , page 403
- ^ Till Hanebuth, Karl Stattegger and Pieter M. Grootes, “Rapid Flooding of the Sunda Shelf: A Late-Glacial Sea-Level Record”, Science288 12 May 2000:1033–35.
- ^ Distributation of the River Threadfin
- ^ Dr. Martin Richards. “Climate Change and Postglacial Human Dispersals in Southeast Asia”. Oxford Journals.http://www.physorg.com/news130761648.html. Retrieved 2010.
- ^ Oppenheimer 1999
- ^ New research forces U-turn in population migration theory
This is part of a much larger discussion over Robert Lindsay’s disscussions over the Cavalli-Sforza genetic studies on race and language. This goes with a larger chart which would be confiusing to reproduce, but it basically all means all Asians and Americans basically derive from Sundaland
I still believe Amis and South Chinese, and even the Altaics came from Sundaland. As proper interpretation of genetic studies prove. Lindsay has a politicized interpretation favoring South China homeland and yet his cited reference, the study by Chu et al concluded that East Asians came from Southeast Asia(Sundaland or Mu) and nowhere can I see a South China homeland from that study. If one is too concerned about the homeland concept, you can even go further than Sundaland to India, then finally, Africa. But accdg to Solheim and Oppenheimer, it is in Sundaland where agriculture and domestication of animals originated and radiated from, away from the hunter-gatherer and nomadic lifestyle of our ancestors in Africa and in India. For now, orthodox academicians still favor the Bellwood theory and a South China origin of agriculture as against Oppenheimer’s and Solheim’s Sundaland theory but with their own review of the right interpretation of the newer genomic studies turning up, they’ll soon shift to the latter. In anthropology, the Sundadont are ancestral to the Sinodont. While the supposed to be pure Amis have some sinodontification. If the Amis are ancestral to the Filipinos, the latter should have predominant sinodontification as well. Some are finding it deceptive; Lindsay’s assertion of Filipinos are South Chinese. Might as well say the South Chinese and the aboriginal Taiwanese as Filipinos.” (Comment posted in discussion at Asia’s Finest)
Below, two Cavalli-sforza diagrams illustrating relatedness among ethinc groups on the one on the right, the small olive spot is “Caucasian” and the larger spread fanning out toward the bottom are the diverse types radiating out of Sundaland, including the various populations of Asiatics, Australians, Pacific Islanders and American Indians. And although this is not precisely my interpretation I will readily admit that the Sundalanders were first to colonise the Americas and that the more recent “Paleoindians” absorbed a previously-existing stratum of Sundalander “Australoids”.