Friday, October 8, 2010

The Origins of Mendailings-Part 1

There are many scepticism on Mendailings. Many confused the Mendailings with the Bataks. Yet their dominant role in Malaya, from Malay courts intrigue in Selangor, Perak and Pahang, seafarer and warring warlords, entrepreneur of tin mine, authorised tax collector of tin ore to their role in opening Kuala Lumpur is forever forgotten.

History is written by the winning parties. Unfortunately the Mendailings sided with the defeated side from the role in JWW Birch's assasination to the lost of Kuala Lumpur to Chinese Kapitan in the Chinese gang fights. This article is taken from Lembaga Adat Mendailings (LAMA)  and is  separated into 3 parts; the mystical origins of the Mendailings, Islamisation of The Mendailings and Their Flight To Malaya and The Mendailings role in the Malay courts and political alliances in Selangor, Perak and Pahang.

(Extracted from Lembaga Adat Mandailing Malaysia souvenir book).


The Mandailing was said to have originated from Munda a district in Middle India. From the 6th century they were wanderers as they were refugees from attacks by the Iraqi Aryan that were expanding their influence.

After crossing the Himalayan Range they settled for a while in Mandalay, the capital of ancient Burma. It is probable that the name Mandalay itself is a corruption of the word Mandailing according to the Burmese dialect.

However yet again they had to wander due to frequently warring Burmese clans. At the time they crossed the Malaccan Straits, that was said at the time was only a narrow strait unlike the present day straits that separated the Malay Peninsular and Sumatera.

The Munda successfully crossed the narrow straits and set up a kingdom in Batang Pane, Portibi, sometime around the end of the 6th century.

The Kingdom Munda Holing at Portibi became famous and expanded its territories to a vast expanse of the Sumatran coast and Malay Peninsular. This elicited the anger of Maharaja Rajenderacola who attacked Munda Holing and the other coastal states in the 9th century.

The Munda Holing armies commanded by Raja Odap-Odap was defeated by Rajenderacola who came to power in the whole of Batang Pane district. His fiancee Borudeakparujar crossed Dolok Maela (in commemoration of their ancestral crossing of the Himalayas ) holding a lump of soil at Portibi to proclaim a new kingdom (Menempah banua).

The second kingdom in Sumatera was set up in Pidoli Dolok known as the kingdom of Mandala Holing meaning the area of the Keling people. At the time they were still of the Hindu faith worshipping Dewa Siva (Lord Siva).

In the 13th century, The Majapahit kingdom attacked Lamuri, Padang Pariaman dan Mandailing. Again the Mandala Holing kingdom was devastated and destroyed.

The inhabitants that were not captured escaped to the jungles and mixed with the indigenous people. Thus it was the (clan) Marga Pulungan was formed that meant picked up from pieces. In the 14 and 15 century, Marga Pulungan set up three Bagas Godang on top of three hills, but this was no longer a big sovereign, only village governments.

In the middle of the 14th century, there is a legend that three children of Yang Dipertuan Pagar Ruyung named as Betara Sinomba, Putri Langgoni and the youngest Betara Gorga Pinanyungan had set up two new kingdoms.

Betara Sinomba was banished by the Yang Dipertuan of Pagar Ruyung for the crime that started from his younger sister adiknya Putri Langgoni. Both siblings and their followers then wandered and set up a kingdom in Kota Pinang. This Yang di Pertuan Kota Pinang that bestowed the raja-rajas to Kota Raja, Bilah, Kampung Raja and Jambi.

His younger brother Betara Gorga Pinanyungan was found guilty of extra-marital relationship with the cousin from his mother side Putri Rumandang Bulan. As they were no other heirs to the throne thus the putri was bethrothed to Raja Gayo.

When Putri Rumandang Bulan was taken to Gayo she brought along a bunch of ripe betel nuts that from which she proceeded to plant a seed each at the location the entourage stopped at until they reached a river bank.

At the river bank Her Highness delivered a son that was tough and powerful. As the entourage tried to continue their journey to Gayo colossal thunder and lightning struck them that they could not decamped. That was the situation they faced in seven tries. Finally a Datu advised that the child should be left on a large rock under an angsana tree where he was born as the prince will be a great raja there.

Putri Rumandang Bulan refused to leave his prince as she wanted to die with him when Raja Gayo in the future comes to know of that she is no longer a virgin.

In such a state a rainbow appeared upon which seven bunian (fairies) descended followed by Dewa Mangala Bulan dari Kayangan. The Puteri was bathed in the nearby river scattered with the flowering angsana petals. As she came out of the river, signs that she had previously delivered was no longer noticeable. Thus the river was soon to be known as "Aek Batang Gadis" meaning the river that restored a women's viriginity.

The child that was left under the angsana tree was found by the hunting party of Sultan Pulungan that gathered him.

The child that was raised in a barn under a house later managed to escape and established a kingdom that defeated Sultan Pulungan. The child that was knowned as Sibaroar or the barn under the house finally became a great king in Penyabungan.

As the king in Penyabungan that is known to the people as hidden by his mother thus his kingdom was known as the kingdom of "MANDE NAN HILANG", in short Mandailing or Mandehilang. He is also the founder of the clan Marga Nasution., meaning orang sakti or enchanted people.

As the proclamation of the royalness of Sibaroar given the title of Sutan Diaru spread far and wide even to Pagar Ruyung, thus the Yang Dipertuan Pagar Ruyung reminisce of the pregnant Putri Rumandang Bulan that was taken to Gayo. His Highness and entourage then embarked and followed the palm trees that were planted by his ex-lover until they reached the river named "Aek Batang Gadis" and brought to the court of Sutan Diaru at Penyabungan.

After a long council sitting a matron called Sisauwa showed a ripe betel nut yellow silk cloth that enclothed Sutan Diaru when he was found under the angsana tree at together with the necklace that was put on him by his mother Putri Rumandang Bulan. Thus it was made known to the Yang Di Pertuan Pagar Ruyung, that Raja Sutan Penyabungan is his son. Thus the citizens of the state was delighted and Sutan Diaru was offically enthroned as the Raja Penyabungan.

At the same time a messenger from Kota Pinang came to Penyabungan to Yang Dipertuan Pagar Ruyung who was there to invite His Highness to enjoin his elder brother that was for a long time separated. Thus the Yang Dipertuan exlaimed, "We will visit my brother at Kota Pinang." from that day onwards Kota Pinang was known as Tanah Abang or Land of The Elder Brother, and Penyabungan was known as Tanah Adik or Land of The Younger Brother, to commerate the event of Betara Sinomba inviting his younger brother Betara Gorga Pinanyungan at Penyabungan to come to Kota Pinang even though his younger brother had a larger kingdom in Pagar Ruyung.

Kingdom of Sibaroar @ Sutan Diaru at Penyabungan finally expanded to take control of the whole of Mandailing Godang that was had very fertile lands.


In the 19th century around 1816, Tentera Paderi or The Paderi Army under the command of Tuanku Imam Bonjol sent Raja Gadumbang Porang or better known as Tuanku Mandailing to Islamise the Mandailing lands.

The Paderi army entered Mandailing through Muara Sipongi and invaded Penyabungan in early 1816.

Then the Dutch entered Mandailing around 1835, resulting in many of the raja-raja of Mandailing to resist and later retreated across the Straits of Malacca and settled in Tanah Melayu or Malaya.


~PakKaramu~ said...


Benarkah mandailing tu makan manusia ?

anakbukitgantang said...

Pak Karamu-yang canibal itu bangsa Batak dan berbeda dengan Mendailing

Pak Karamu marga Nasution ya?

anak cucu lubis said...


saudara, utk pengetahuan saudara sy kini sedang membuat kajian mengenai org Mandailing khusus di negeri Perak. Jika saudara sudi, bolehkah saya menemuramah saudara?